The crisis of the relationship between man and nature
By Daniela Eutizi, ITALY, 1998
(English translation of the Italian original by Anna Tribuzi, ITALY, 1998 )
Contribution to the EDUVINET "Global Challenge - ecologically" subject
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"La storia non è altro che una continua serie
rivolti al passato in nome dei problemi, delle curiosità, delle inquietudini
che ci circonda e assedia" (Braudel)
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Table of Content
The crisis of the relationship between man and nature
POLITICS AND LAWS
Two important steps in European Environmental Politics:
The legislation at Defence of the Environment
The commission program for 1997
TOWN IN ITALY
THE ITALIAN EVENTS
Seveso and Acna di Cengio case
TO KNOW MUCH MORE
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A new ecological factor determined the relationship between man and his environment: culture, seen as a variety of different means by which humanity realised, during the historical process, his relationship with his surroundings. Many changes modify the relationship between man and nature. With consequences on produttive structure such as globalizzazion of economic cicle. Macroscopic effects of this change are:
The increasing population, as well as the increasing and uncontrolled use of energy, the production of solid, liquid and gaseous litters, the extinction of rare animal species make us a heavy burden for our planet to bear. Nowadays, about 20% of world population uses more than 80% of natural resources. In 1986 humanity, - one species among millions- took advantage of 40% of earth photosynthesis net product and 30% of sea resources. The increasing production of material wealth leads to a total exploitation of our resources, not caring of what can happen later.
The greenhouse effect is a clear consequence of the saturated capacity of assimilation of our planet. The following study analyses in general terms the Italian answer to such reflections, planning, experimentation and the use of clean technologies, put in evidence during the international debates upon the future and the defence of our wonderful planet.
We must revise the ecological balance (local, regional and global) inverting the traditional approach of en durability: we mustnt calculate what human weight a natural habitat can sustain but we must calculate what impact human needs has on the natural habitat and how the natural habitat can survive.
The pressure exercised on the environment continued. And the urban ecosystems represents one of the principal threats. In the Cities, in fact there is a major concentration of activity- traffic, energetic consummation, refuge production - that are the origin of environmental changes in local and global terms. Form here, the necessity of an adequate and efficient system for environmental control with the demand to give impulse to the initiatives of information and formation, to develop an environmental conscience and modify behaviour and economical choices. Documents about suitability are provided by World Conservation Union (IUCN, 1991), by United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) and by World Nature Found (WWF): Caring for the Earth: A strategy for a Sustainable Living, where the sustainable growth ward , always muddled, is replaced with sustainable development : "to better living quality staying in the limits of weight capacity of involved ecosystems".
In these last two meetings - Vienna and Costa Rica - objectives, strategies and plans to development of clear technologies are been recognised, for every State in the World (the exceptions of Montreal fall ). Period of 1997-99 years 6000/md of dollars are been assigned to delete re-production and use of dangerous toxicants: Italy is the 5th giver - after USA, Japan, Germany and France to increase the found to ozone defence.
In Europe we produce 10 tons of litters per person; 864 kg in the USA of domestic ones: 2 times more than Europe and 16 times than underdeveloped Countries. In Italy: 301
A preliminary research in Bonn showed how a 10% reduction of CO2 emissions in 2010 would create, in the energetic fied, 800.000 new employees. The prime minister of Japan Haskimoto made himself spokesman of this aim to reduce greenhouses gas (anidride carbonica, methane, protoxide of Azote):
Europe: 15% respect to 1990
both for 2010, with intermediate stage in 2005
The costs of such an undertaking is, according to the Commission, from 15 to 30 milliard of Ecu (0,2% - 0,4 % of PIL of Ue in 2010): this is what Europe and ambientalisti aim. The obtained results at this summit were satisfactory not very much.
European Union and Japan defend the so called hypothesis of "two basketsº : they want the negotiate to be concerned with mainly responsible gases for the greenhouse effect.(carbon dioxide,methane and.oxide azote.) as far as the regulations of other gases as hidro fluorine carbide,perfluorocarburi and esafluori is concerned will be discussed in a further meeting. Italy and Ue must confirm the leadership role assumed in Japan, even by adopting unilateral initiatives.
Kyoto (169 countries took place) must direct industrial strategies of superpowers towards the endurability and sunstainability of our planet.
Very important the posisition of Europe: it is basic to start with an intervention concerning environmental politics, socio-economical politics, means of transport, production of electric energy, green areas in our towns. Each State, together
Two important notes to remember in the sustainable cities project:
The Expert Group on the Urban Environment establishedby the European Commission in 1991 following the publication of the Green Paper on the Urban Environment launched the Sustainable Cities Project in 1993 with main aims:
to contribute to the development of thinking about sustainability in
European urban settings;
to disseminate best practice about sustainability at local level;
to formulate recommendations to influence at European Union, Member State, Regional and local level (in the longer term).
Important steps of European Community about Environment are:
There does not exist in Italy a law that confront organically the problem of environmental protection. Our own Constitution deaths with , in a reductive way, "the guardianship of landscape, and National historical and artistic public property " in art. 9 as main principle of Italian Republic. And stop. Only in 1976 the Merli Law (319/76) defines the environment "a natural resource that has to be guarded and conserved in the interest of collectively". The law has introduced the obligation to purify waters used for industrial process (unloading of every type). They are bounded:
In 1966 the antismog law, that disciplines the implants of heating and the function of vehicles. Farraginous application.
Galasso Law (431/85) avoids parts of the National territory (Landscape Bond ) and risks the Region to the definition of Landscape Plans for their guardianship and conservation (frequently absent for the local economic interests).
In the 1982 there was the discipline for refuges selling off. Only in the 80's enters whit rigour legislation on industrial refuge (DPR 915/82 - 319/78).
On the actual normative, in the year 1996 there's significant novelty:
March 1996: the DPCM (Council of Ministry President's Decree) gives fulfilment to some distribution foreseen by the law 36/94 on the irrigation resources. It promotes a censor of the irrigation resources on all the national territory. The discipline of the economic irrigation, the protection of polluted waters and it defines the general methodologies programming a rational method for the irrigation resources.
February 1996: emanated the second Triennial Program for the protection of natural air relative to the period of 1994 - 1996 (it was deliberated in December 1995 like it was foreseen by the law quadro on the protection of the air 1991+ bringing up to date the official list of protected air.
For 1997: realisation the "Card of Nature" and definition of lines of territorial assets as in law quadro. The program, in this condition, is limited to fix in about 135 millions of dollars the financial resources available to restart the various actions and protections of areas and listing some marine reserve that the Minister of Environment should shortly indicate.
30 December 1996: The Council of Ministry approves an important measure: reorganise refuge material.
Referendum April 1993 removed the disposition on the environmental control on the part of Aziende ASL. In 1996 the reorganisation of the control system.
January 1996 it's approved (DPCM) the statute of the National Agency for the protection of the environment (ANPA) founded with the law 1994: function the works duty property to reintroduce the politics of environmental control.
Founded ARPA ( Regional Agency for the Protection of Environment) has the work to unwind the activity of monitorage, control, projects for the healing and reclaimed land in the environmental camp.
Since 1994 Agencies of Valle d'Aosta, Trento, Bolzano was created by regional and provincial laws. They joins Piemonte, Toscana and Emilia Romagna Agencies : law 6/1994
DPR 8 June 1982 defines control standards to classification of waters and individuate indicators of beach pollution. ARPA has, nowadays, this function.
Law 319/76 (Law Merli) + L. 349/86 declare "High Risk areas of environmental crisis". 11 risk areas have been individuated, on which Government must intervene:
1987: Napoli, Lambro-Seveso, Val Bormida
1988: Po di volano e Burana
1989: area of conoidi, Po di Polesine
1990: Portoscuso, Brindisi, Taranto, Priolo- Augusta, Gela
1990s: Massa, Crotone, Valle del Sarno. Manfredonia, Genova, Livorno, Ravenna, Falconara
Direttiva Seveso: DPR 175/88. The CEE Directive, after the Seveso accident, was receptive by the Italian State only in 1987 (DPR 175/88): it sanctifies the measure of prevention ignited and main principles of environmental defence. The businesses have to present auto certifications to the competent authorities.
In Italy, during 1996, national legislation for the defence of environment has marked an important new step: on 30 December 1996, in fact, a decree to reorganise Refuges has been approved by Council of Ministers. It's a great fact.
(Presented in European Parlament by Jacques Santer, the President of Commission in Strasbourg )
The European Commission (found in 1995) fixed the main strategies and terms for Europe. Three information campaigns have been organised:
Among priorities: growth, employment, euro, a model of European society, the presence of Europe in the international scenery. The future of the union In Environmental matters, the Fifth Program has been ri-examined.
European sustainable cities report
Ways of applying the urban management principles and following fields:
Mobility, acoustic and atmospheric pollution: Sofia Protocol was not respected (NOx emission over 10%)
Traffic pollution: According to OCSE94 in Milan: NOx gases are increasing, differently from other European capitals
Traffic acoustic pollution: 88,5% of cases (96 Italian towns were monitored) acoustic levels are unacceptable
Use of public means of transport: from 1982 to 1993 the use of public transport lowered from 18% to 7,5%.
Causes of delays:
Government: lacking investments in urban structures; delay in adopting European standards of traffic lows
Some regions: unrespectful of acoustic lows on critical areas in need of atmospheric clearance
Towns: non-innovative mobility management (traffic claming, parking, control, car sharing, telework, poor diffusion of urban traffic Plans.)
"Local acting, global thinking" this is Legambientes slogan, which has been stimulating the local corporations for years
A bad situation: Many toxic refuses belong from the hospitals. Every years from 56.000 to 200.00 tons are produced. Only Sicilia, for example, during last 8 years, has spent 1.000 miliardi in selling off.
In Italy, generally, 80 million /year of solid refuges are producted:
In 1992, in Italy In function were:
The whole refuse production is about 63,6 million of tons a year,
22.7 million of tons are urban solid refuse,
19.5 million of tons are special refuse,
2.7 million of tons are toxic-noxious,
14.3 million of tons are inert refuse while about
200.000 of tons are hospital refuse.
The avarage italian man produces more than a kg. of solid and liquid refuse a day, more than 350 kg. every year. THE ILLEGAL SELLING OFF IS A BIG PROBLEM IN ITALY. Ecomafie - clan of illegal toxic material transport - grows up. From 54 clan in 1995 - involved in illegal refuges traffic and building abusivism - to 104 in 1997. From 21.000 Miliardi to 33.000 miliardi of illegal turnover. It has been formed a Commission of inquiry by Parlament: many illegalities have been wiped out.
|Ecomafia 1998 Report (by Legambiente)|
|Regions with environmental illegality|
The reform introduced by the legislative decree n. 22 -february 05-1997 (Min. Edo Ronchi) provides for a new method of refuse management, which is based on the technique by process of elimination and considers all the stages and the operations which lead to their elimination a basic part. Another important conquest.
The refuse reduction followes a specific series of processes for the final elimination which comprehend: the differentiated picking, the refuse operations, recycling and energy salvage.......
The dump as a typology of elimination for 90% of refuse, from January the 1st 2000 can be used only for the residual fraction deriving from recycling and salvage operations. This will make refuse elimination impracticable.
The new classification of refuse and management activities introduces a unitary notion of refuse. In addition to the distinction about the origin of urban refuse,a new cathegory of dangerous refuse takes the place of the limited cathegory of toxic and noxious refuse.
The decree also provides for a change in the taxation system. The citizen will pay according to the traditional elimination system. As a consequence of fact citizens will be more responsible as far as their production of refuse is concerned.
- 52,4% of commons had city sewer system
- 47.6% not adequate sewerage net system
- 5% without sewerage
Implants of water washing are difficult to value: in 1989 an Accord was firmed between Regions and Minister of Environment. A water sewerage system is better, now. A big conquest.
- 6.589 Ton of mono-oxide of carbon
- 2.524 of methane (CH4)
- 1.981 of SO2
- Oxide of Azote (NOx)
- 30% foxil combustion (used generating electricity)
- 35% is trasformed
- 65% dispersed in calor
Emission of gases used in spray and refrigerators (CFC and HCFC)
Italy: + 2 % (on world scale). In 1993 Italy approved law on defence of Ozone (no use of these gases). You can see better picture at pages. 5 and 6.
The increase in carbon dioxide emissions -CO2- (and in the respective concentrations in the atmosphere) given to the growing energetic consuption in the civilized areas and to the forest fire, provoke the so called greenhouse effect. This effect is so called because of the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere which prevents heat from despersing in the space, by causing a progresssive growing of earthly temperature. In Italy, before 50 years, ices of Alpi (90%) risk to no resist to the high temperature with territorial and economic dissest as consequence.
The consequent risks of the global climatic changes can produce ruinous effects for the environmental balances, which go from the flooding of coast regions to the growing of desert areas. (p.42,p.43 Environmental statistics). Estimated emissions of greenhouse gases, by source.
The "Italian war" to CO2: the second communication to United Nations about climax (the first was transmitted on January 1995) drawn up by the Ministry of Environment in co-operation with the other ministries interested in this matter, offers several positive aspects;
1) air-conditioning gas reduction (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, protoxid) until 2010 is at 7% (task undertaken within the E.U.).
2) an intelligent strategy of gas reduction can be managed at lower costs.
In Italy a significative share of participation's grants full economic advantage for the community. The main participation's estimated by the Government concern the transport sector and the electrical section.
Among the most important actions as far as the transport is concerned can be considered the effect to low the importance of the private car, by using alternative fuel which make cars more efficient (you can see at page 20 about the agreement on April 1997 between the Ministry of Environment and Fiat: it has been joined an important result).This agreement has a particular value, because it is one of the first cases in which the industrial sector has modified its own strategic choices in order to face the consequences of climatic changes.
Even as far as the electrical front is concerned, have been joined ambitious objectives; the doubling of clean energies within 2010.
In Italy this involves a rise from 7000 to 10000 MW of sun additional, biomass, geothermics and hydro-electricity beyond a purpose of 3 million of square metre of thermic solar collectors and beyond a production of 2 million of tons of bio-eatables.
At last in the communication has been inserted a significative and innovative line of conduct concerning the electrical saving. According to a study, within the electric sector the climatic intervention (growing thermoelectric installation efficiency, a greater employ of methane, doubling of renewable funds share and interventions for 50 thousand millions of kwh) involves management costs a little lower than the tendentials.
In the next months the instruments which allow to join the specific goals for the short and medium period will be defined in detail by the Government, the Authority of energy and by the local bodies.
|use of pesticide, especially in agricultural sector :|
|1° Belgio ( 1261 Kg/Kmq/' 94)||4° Portogallo (683 Kg/Kmq/' 94)|
|2° Paesi Bassi (1210 Kg/Kmq/' 94)||5° Francia (436 Kg/Kmq/' 94)|
|3° Italy (773 Kg/Kmq/' 94)||6° Spagna (411 Kg/Kmq/' 94)|
|Environmental defence||Protected areas|
|1° Austria||1° Danimarca|
|2° Svezia||2° Germania|
|3° Danimarca||3° U.K.|
|15° Italy||4° Paesi Bassi / 5° ITALY|
In Italy, refuges are mainly represented by plastic: bottles, glasses, wrapping paper of every kind. Dumps are full. We can use a different kind of no packing included products, but pollution would be the same. It's no true, according Union Plast's President, which affirm that thank using of plastic material to pack, we can see:
- reduction of 400% weight
- reduction of 250% volume
- energetic saving of 200% (300% of petrol for transport)
|1. Production and consumption of plastic package (data 1996)|
|Production in Kton||2.500|
|Import in Kton||120|
|Export in Kton||760|
|Consumption in Kton||1.860|
|Grow up Rate 92/96||6%|
|2. Quantity of rycicable refuges by differentiated picked|
|Packages in Kton||160|
|3. Plastic package Sectors (data 1996)|
|Number of Firms||165|
|Number of workers||1.612|
|Turnover (Mdi Lire)||684|
|Rycicle Capacity Kton||1.094|
|Real rycicle in Kton||759|
|Rycicled package in Kton||159|
|Imported packed refuges in Kton||47|
We need, instead, echo- compatible system of ryciclage. In the technology Italy is in the van: it's able to re- use 800.000 ton of discarding and plastic refuges through separation and milling processes, every years. The problem is the organization and managment of waste materials. Only in these las years many cities (november 1997) have started environmental politics, especially about differentiated picking (vedi a pag. 32).
|for packing system in Italy||2000||30.000|
|for rycicling system||165||1.600 (small and average business)|
|No in dumps selling off refuges in Europe (Statistic in New Ecologia)|
|1° Danimarca||4° Belgio|
|2° Svezia||5° Paesi Bassi|
|3° Francia||6° Portogallo|
|13° Italy||14/15° Irlanda and Grecia|
Renowable energy: a) sun termic (installed implants)
- Germany: 200.000 mq/y
- Greece: 150.000 mq/y
- Austria: 120.000 mq/y
- Italy: 15.000 mq/year
- Germany: 1136 MW
- DK: 637
- Spagna: 123
- Italy: 22Mw in 1995
Correct equation is
clean products of rycicled plastic +
productive development =
sustainable and living Town = Defence of Environmental
This is the rigt culture that we can transfer in the School. Students must be our main reference to change our customs against the Earth. Schools and Political initiatives must run togheter. Local Administration have to create a real echo- compatible market : to change the dumps into integrate and sustainable managment of refuge system. It's difficult because of the high cost of new used echnologies: it's no easy to eliminate dumps and use other selling off processes.
So, it's necessary an economic and ecological valutation on world scale.
An important fact:
75% of plastic refuges are to package upon 2,5 million of ton of pack
produced , 13.5% is realized with rycicled plastic.
Perhaps, we are towards modernity in the environmental matter.
|Energetic Consumption in Italy (1996)|
|Petrol||94 million of tep* /year|
|Coal||13 million of tep/year|
|Methane||41 million of tep/year|
|* = ton equal to petrol|
The rise of social welfare level caused a considerable increase in consumers goods and consequently in refuse; family shopping changes and originates a different environmental impact. The consumer society can be considered the society of waste and waste of resources changes into refuse. The question of urban solid refuse elimination is strictly connected with the quality of consuption within a family. This consuption directly depends on the available resources.
Changes in purchase and consuption have not concerned only the quantity, the variety and the quality of consumers goods, but it depended also on the way how the different goods have been offered and delivered to buyers-consumers.
Houses, fuel and power electricity are the class of consuption which mainly increased the italian families expenses. During the 1960s, italian families used to drink the municipal waterworks water,while all the other liquid products (milk, oil, wine) were bought by measure at the retailers where the consumer went with a suitable container.
Bread, pasta, rice and legumes were bought loose and wrapped in paper,as well as olives, cheese, mortadella and other few cold cuts.
The increase in private income connected with the technical advances, which introduced boxes and other kinds of containers on the market, led to radical changes as far as the above mentioned bahaviour is concerned. For instance, the different way of assuming a lot of soft-drinks has provoked an invasion of used tins and the differentiated picking for the consecutive recycling is now necessary
67 % tons in 1986;
6043 tons of tins in 1995).
Even changes in the italian families behaviour helped to an increase in refuse. The number of italian families changed from 12 million to 20 million. This increase leads to the splitting up of family consuption; particularly -but not only- of foodstuffs.
Another cause of changes in consumers customs is the transformation of the italian woman role in the last ten years.
The introduction of new technologies and materials,the social welfare and the different management policies not only increased refuse but also changed its composition (you can see some specific data on page 12)
In 1975, for example,the organic fraction with the 44% represented
the major part of the total of urban solid refuse.
In 1985 the organic fraction falls to 31%
in 1995 to 29%.
The most serious question in the italian refuse management policy is to find them a right location. In according to the datas provided by the Ministry of Environment, we repeat that in Italy - in a different way compared to what happens in the other industrialized countries - for about 95% of cases its necessary a dump to eliminate refuse. This means that generally we wrongly consider refuse only as something to eliminate and not as a possible resource to be used again.
The reform introduced by the legislative decree n. 22 -february 05-1997 (Minster Edo Ronchi) provides for a new method of refuse management,which is based on the technique by process of elimination and considers all the stages and the operations which lead to their elimination a basic part.
The situation: the Local Agenda 21 were not promoted in any of the Italian local administration. Environmental indicator systems are still rare initiatives.
The causes :
The changes: Some positive but undervalued exceptions:
The echo- industry actually has many problems. In respect to the countries of the Union, Italy takes fourth place in terms of work and in invoices preceded by Germany, France and the United Kingdom.
On may 12 the major Italian communes endows medium green for habitants, equal to 8,9 square metres, just under the minimum levels indicated by the law.(9)
In 1995 90% of energy consumers in the transport sector was absorbed by the transport of rubber. From 1975 to 1994 the auto transport of goods has more than tripled passing from 62.795 to 187.148 millions of tons for every kilometre. In the same space of time the traffic of goods on the railways has increased by 48%. In 1996 the number of automobiles that circulate have surpassed 30 million.
In 1996 the mobility of students in the 12 major Italian cities was prevalent marked by movements realised by foot (36%) decreased in respect of 1995 where as the car was the method used by workers(53%). The preference for the car makes the taxes for motorization very high. For cannot meet the demands of transportation the offer is variable in the twelve cities passing from 4.000 seats for every kilometre for the habitants of Brai to 20.000 for Milan. For the government of mobility only 18% of the communities held have adapted the Urban plans for traffic
In 1995 the arrival of tourism registered in the Italian receptive structure was around 67 million, with an increment of presence in respect to 1990 of 13,5%. On average there was 117 arrivals on every 100 residents, with a value of 718 in Valle DAosta that results one of the regions with the minor fluctuation tourist 1,3 % of arrivals) registers the major the major impact on the environment with reference to superficial territory, there was observed a medium around 223 arrivals for every square km.
In the last three years there has been an rise in number in degree courses activated by matriculation in the environmental formation in respect to the general progress.
The pressure on the environment was continued. The ecological system of the cities represents one of the major threats. In the cities, in fact, there is a major concentration of activity-traffic, energy consumption, refuse production- that are the origins of the environmental changes in local terms and global. From here the necessity of an adequate and efficient system for environmental control with the demand to give impulses to the information and formation for the development of a conscience and to modify behaviour and economical choices.
Among other Countries, Italy 5Th. world potency will show itself to 2000 with deep changes in different sectors: information, industry, research .
To Card of Aalborg (Start to campaign upon sustainable development in Europe) have participated:
Something has changed. Whether right or wrong, Italy said no to nuclear. The fear that the progressively diminishing prices of energetic materials could menace the economy of industrial countries, vanished. The environmental effects of energetic wasting and the defence of environment - finally - what humanity begins to wonder and comprehend.
The meeting of Kyoto is an important step. In Bonn, in order to prepare the meeting, a research explains how a reduction of CO2 emissions in 2010 would make the employment of 800,000 in energetic field possible. The Prime Minster of Japan was the spokesman of these date: a reduction of gas in 2010 against that of 1990. According the Commission, the costs would been round about 30-60 Million of ECU. This is the target; if Kyoto should fail, Ue would go on by itself. But the situation is difficult. We are watching a new politics of wastes, which the princes of petrol lower than in 1973, are encouraging against the economy of resources.
Some ISTAT statistics about soil use in Italy, which is so divided:
57,37% of agricultural areas of which 11% destined to arboreal
cultivation (vineyard and olive yard);
32,25% to forestall areas;
4,47% to urban areas and used for infrastructures;
6% areas without vegetation and covered by lakes and rivers.
Different situation between North and South of Italy: deforestation and soil exploitation has reduced territorial availability ( 70 %). Consequence: hidrogeological trouble (landslide, flood...); 1/3 of 3,252 Km of beach was eliminated to build seaside resorts or other similar things; many river beds have changed to pick up materials for buildings. Nevertheless, many things - fortunately- are really changing. Hastily.
The European position was basic at Kyoto: in order to achieve our aims we have to change our environmental, economic and social politics, starting with transports, going on to electric energy production to ... the green areas in our towns. If we reduce gas emissions, then we can live in modern, clean and less polluted industrial towns. This is the advice of the Legambiente, the most important national Association for the defence of our territory.
What about Italy? Not too bad, as far as Kyoto is concerned, Italy is trying to do something for its climate, as the Communication to the U.N. declares. The task of reducing gas ( carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, protoxid) up to 2010 is of 7%, but other reductions are possible. But far more important is what costs are concerned. An intelligent strategy of reduction can be efforded with low costs. In Italy, a consistent series of interventions is a garantee of real economic advantage. The Government focuses the attention on transports and energy.
Among the most important decisions: the mobility field, ( lower use of private cars- improvement of public transports) the FIAT commitment to produce, in 2005, vehicles which can consume 20% less than present- drivers would gain the extra-costs in less then 2 years with a general saving of 1000 milliards of lire, -the use of different fuels, - a better road work. The accord with FIAT represents one of the first cases in which an industrial compartment changed its strategic choices to avoid worse effects upon climate.
In the National Conference upon climatic changes - opened by Romano Prodi and conduced by Edo Ronchi, Ministry of Environment - they dealth with :
Local government- economic actors involved in energetic system (Enea, Anpa Enel, Unione petrolifera)- Ministries and others important people toke part to Conference. A new time is opened.
(by Report ISTAT 1996)
In the last decades, the environmental question has assumed such an importance as to orient the choices and actions of the European and National Politics to value the impact of Human activities towards environment. Communitary Decrees are emanated to realise Clear Technological Development in the different productive sectors: from industry to agro-alimentary production.
In concrete, the gubstantial developmentº thats to say " a development apt to satisfy the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of the next generation to do likewiseº (Bruntland Rapport 1988) is the principle inspiration of Fifth Program of action for the political environmental and the recommendation advances of the European Union in seat of the political sectors. "Towards the Sustainability " is the principle of 5th Program to orient the Countries towards an economic model that holds into account the impoverishment of the environmental resources.
The Council of European Ministries of the Environment started with force, in 1996, an up to date of a more translation effective strategy of the development sustainable in the political commentary, pointing out four main actions:
The role of the European Union for the realisation of the environmental politics is underlined even by the financial resources at their disposal. Criteria base of substantial development are represented in the same solicitations to reforms that move the fiscal load of work income and consummations undertaking of not renewable (remember the carbon energy tax)
The environment is a land of confrontation at international level. These countries, stronger in environmental debts, are more limited e/o with more capacity to innovation and investments are destined to assume a guide role , depending on the declaration of the Summit of the G7 in Cabourg in May 1996. (Who offers a good or more substantial environmental service will have advantages even on the market)
In the national seats, the urgency of occupational problem has provoked a discussion on the diffusion of the third sector and the funding of specific projects in environmental field. Its certain that the environmental politics cannot alone solve the employment problems. But there exists a connection: the international debate sustains a theory that sees in the guardianship of the environment and the healing of the damage done in the area of investments that could ignite positive effects in terms of growth and occupation.
A different key of reading is interesting: a substantial contribution could derive from the development of economic activity on the one side, but from diminishing pressure upon the environment on the other, played by traditional productive sectors such as transport, agriculture and tourism. To convert behaviour of the citizens and industries towards a sustainable growth asks for a normal apparatus in environmental guardianship.
In Italy, in 1996 the National Legislation for the defence of the environment marked an important innovation: December 30th 1996 - in fact, the Council of Ministry approved a re-organisation in the matter of litters - refuges (Dregs). Its a great fact.
They noticed that the most serious question in the Italian refuse management policy is to find them a right location. In according to the data provided by the Minister of Environment, in Italy, in a different way compared to what happens in the other industrialised countries for about 95% of cases its necessary a dump to eliminate refuse.
The reform introduced by the legislative decree n. 22 February 1997 provides for a new method of refuse-management, which is based on the technique by process of elimination and considers all the stages and the operations which lead to their elimination a basic part.
The eco- industries - that is the activity for the protection of environment -have big occupational potential, not easy to quantify statistically. The Countries are few that get together regularly exhausted information in the sectors and existing analysis that refers to the specific sectors of environmental protection.
At European level, information and dates available are contained in a study promoted in 1996 by DG XI of the European Commission and by Eurostat. Eight types of eco-industries have been individuate:
According to this study in ITALY , in 1994, the turnover of the ecoindustries - basically estimated by the expense of goods and environmental services - is valued at roughly:
More than three quarters (3/4) of the turnover are concrete - according these facts - in 4 European Countries:
Sectarian analysis, for Italy as well as other European Countries, shows us that 90 % of production is represented in the goods and services used for harvest and treatment of liquid residues, for management of solid residues, for control of atmospheric pollution.
Not uniform the weight in the singular activities:
In Italy the main sector is represented by management of solid refuges
In Europe in average of European cities, classification is:
Occupation in the environmental sector for 1994:
In Italy the sector estimates 100,000 unity, then added 65,000 unity of indirect occupation (generated by rapport of exchanges between ecoindustries and other sectors of economy), around 11% given total Ue; comparing this with the European Union we can look at the following numbers:
In the eco industrial sector there's talk of innovation of processes, in reference to the adaptation of new and significant betterment productive methods; innovation of products, relative to the introduction of new products based on the change of better technology.
A positive fact
In the sectors of extraction of carbon fossil, lignite e peat; fabrication of chemical products; fabrication of office machinery, elaboration and information systems; production of electric energy, vapour, gas and water; fabrication of vehicles the percentage of undertakings for which the limitation of the environmental impact represents a fundamental objective is enough elevated: element is high.
We cant do without cars, to get to work, during our spare time, but it is another danger, actually. The presence of so many cars in urban areas is still an undervalued problem. The quality of life is gradually modifying.
In 1996, 66,8% of families living in the 12 towns taken as examples for the ....., focuses the attention on problems such as the lack of parking areas, intense traffic, acoustic pollution. In Rome and Naples the polluting elements are often above the acceptable limits and the population is strongly sensitive about this (67%).
The individual behaviour in the of means of transport tends to private cars, chiefly responsible of traffic, air and acoustic pollution.
and Rome (48%)
They are among those towns with the more elevated occupation of urban territory, with 60 cars on 100 inhabitants.
But this problem is strictly related to the quality of public transport network (PUT), which obviously has to be improved, in order to encourage a lower use of private cars and more integration among urban and extra urban public service. It s needs more attention towards mobility plan.
A law of 1990 (142) encourages the use of public means of transport with the realisation of parking areas where to leave private cars.
All towns with more than 30.000 inhabitants have to adopt this urban traffic plan, but only 23% of them is doing this. Another strategy to encourage a proper use of public means of transport is that of increasing time-parking fares.
The excessive use of private cars is a danger for public health: in Rome level of benzene registered was over the limit of 15 ug/m3 (it has been of 20 ug/m3).
The rise of urban settlement is one of the most important transformations in human life during the last decades. According to the Union Nations in 2030 most of the world population will be living in urban areas and there will be at least 100 metropolis with more than 5 millions inhabitants. The realisation of an endurable development of the urban areas becomes vital. These towns will be facing more and more complex problems: unemployment, lack of houses, socio-economic differences, increasing criminality, acoustic and climatic pollution, lack of green areas and parks; general vulnerability towards natural and environmental emergency.
This is a challenge to the capability of Governments to realise an economic and social development apt to respect the defence of territory. The EUROPEAN CARD OF CITIES towards en durability (Aalborg, Denmark, may 1994) is a clear example of co-operation among towns to realise such a sustainable development.
Several factors of urban stress will be analysed, concerning 12 Italian towns: Torino, Milano, Venezia, Genova, Bologna, Firenze, Roma, Napoli, Bari , Palermo e Catania, Caglieri where environmental problems are strongly felt. In fact: problem of dirt is considered by
47,1% of the residents (of these towns)
1996: 51, 9% resident families
1996: national percentage is 27,3% (in drop)
Town-planning strategies are becoming more and more important. The increasing urbanisation, even of sub-urban areas is an alarming factor. Not only big cities, in fact, but all the neighbouring areas as well, are object of building expansion and this causes a lot of Pressure on the environment.
Epidemiological studies (DNA) have demonstrated a clear relationship between polluting elements and mans health. Environment and health are related. Acoustic and air pollution in our towns is one of the major causes of such diseases as headaches, sleeplessness, breathing difficulties and even worse, cancer. The Organisation of the Doctors of the Families is promoting a campaign in favour of the defence of public health, -hanging from the windows 30.000 white sheets with the writing "No to the smogº With this organisation as a supporter, we think it is necessary to observe breathing diseases in old people and teenagers as a mirror of environmental diseases. An Observatory on breath is created. Pollution is above all responsible for diseases like asthma, heart problems and cancer at the lungs.
The organisation OMS asks for a better legislation concerning the problems of traffic and they ask for a constant survey of pollution levels over all the national territory. The ambientalisti ask for more radical interventions: pedestrian areas, major efficiency of public transports, clean fuels, less cars.
Doctors suggest not only pills, but, above all, "strong doses of clean and healthy environment", Mario Falcone-secretary of National Federation of Families' Medics)
This is the photo for Italy that wants invest in the future.
In July 1997: we, finally, have a "Childhood action Plan" which includes a group of laws for the prevention of youth problems and an active participation of young people to the development of towns. This fact is revealed by research made Legambiente in the last "Urban Ecosystem Rapport" called "Young people Action in Town". It represents the point of view of local administrations and to value actuation of Childhood Plans for a children oriented towards a better and more living towns. At measure to Child. Some positive results have been noticed, even if many towns lamented lack of adequate offices to answer to the received questioners (n. 20).
|Cultural animations promoted in some towns of Italy, in these last two years|
|Art exhibitions and meetings||62 %|
|Civic networks||19 %|
|place of information||29 %|
|libraries to young people||10 %|
|Museum to children||12 %|
|Excursions in own towns||71.9 %|
|Excursions out||49 %|
|Infancy becomes leading character:|
|Alerts and sentries||11.5%|
|Young municipal council||35.7%|
|Projects of requalification for children||59.8%|
Towards a friendship between children and towns
The "childhood Plan" includes a project for a town friend to children, supported by the Minister of Environment according to the results of the meetings at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and at Istanbul in 1996. A technical committee has defined the most important measures upon society, culture, environment and institution. Children will have a basic role in expressing their advise as far as changes in their towns are concerned. The project has been presented at Naples, it will be entitled to Carl Pagliarini and will include a specific agency with the task of increasing the value of what has already been realised and of promoting new projects and educational activities.
At child measure
In these last years many ambientalisti - by different experiences and itineraries - have begun to get involved directly in the institutions and governments of Cities, Regions, Provinces and parks, general administration, public enterprises and lastly even in the national government. For Italy, this fact represents a positive newness, a relevant contribution that testifies a rush of renewal of politics and of the present leading classes.
In the 80's different environmental associations were born. Their activities have favoured the diffusion of cultural "Environment" connected with themes like quality of life and health. In a large stratums of public opinion an ecological awareness developed. This was an important step.
In 1986, with the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, a big push was given to the sensibility and major interest in environmental questions. On November 18 1987 the anti-nuclear referendum will confirm. Italians answers "no" to the nuclear.
A new season was opened to affirm the politic towards Environment. Italy recuperates its accumulated lateness in regards to other European Countries. It assigns consistent financial resources to the defence of Environment, favouring legislative corrected processes. But some contradiction and difficult situations in the administration and institution of Italy will provoke great delusion in the next few years. Fortunately in the last few years a revelation and attentive analysis have started to recognise strategies and resources in and out of Institutions.
Many association have grown up. The most important one is Legambiente: its proposal = to give the environmental politics a visibility with concrete factors for modernisation and re qualification of the Country. During the last years, 18.000 milliards were invested in the re -qualification of 58.000 houses and in giving a new job to 20.000 people. This is an accord stipulated between Legambiente with national syndicates: CGIL, CISL, UIL.
So, ecological awareness is increasing and we hope it will really take hold before it's too late to save our natural heritage from total destruction. Italy is preparing its battle to help its wonderful historical and natural landscape. The administrative of 1997 shows this: in the most important towns there was a different proposal to win the election by some first citizen. A new themes are present in the electoral plain. We see.
|ROME: urban ecosystem 1997 results|
% washing (filtered) waters
% Rsu picked
|Public Means of Transport
(7.500 milliards of investment)
|NAPLES: urban ecosystem 1997 results|
% washing (filtered) waters
% Rsu picked
|Public Means of Transport
% washing (filtered) waters
% Rsu picked
|Public Means of Transport
% washing (filtered) waters
% Rsu picked
|Public Means of Transport
% washing (filtered) waters
% Rsu picked
|Public Means of Transport
first places for the attention towards green areas
Bergamo, Arezzo, Bologna, Tranto, Verona, Sondrio, Pavia, Rimini, Lodi, Roma, Modena, Venezia
...and the last ones
Massa, La Spezia, Latina, Terni Frosinone, Trapani, Siracusa, (96°) Taranto. Cagliari, Reggio Calabria , Aquila (103 posto)
The Latium Region has started a new action plan to promotion of protective areas and natural Parks. It invested:
75,000 Milliard for 165,000 ha of territory;
New natural Parks and 11 protective areas have been created (20,000 ha + 50,000)
13 natural parks and reserves in the Province of Viterbo.
(dates: Oasis, February 1998)
Two Italians on three (64.2% of population) hold the acoustic pollution responsible for big troubles in own town and according 22% of people it is one among main questions to face:
|South and Isles||31.4%|
|Centre of Italy||13.4%|
The loudest town is Naples (p.za National Museum). The noise is a public menace for sleep and health Acoustic pollution can cause much more damages than smog. Towns need to re-organise their public traffic to defend the wonderful artistic patrimony of Italy. 96 Towns show as the level of tolerability of night noise is high in 98% of urban areas:
In Italy, it is not easy to know the exact dimension of such phenomena. Most of dumps of contaminate refuges are abusive and are not known where to be found, but they are mostly concentrated in the Lombardia - Piemonte - Liguria triangle. An analysis - made by Civil Protection in 1986 - shows us that 4526 urban refuses and 49 toxic refuge are illegal. In 1988 -3000 Commons have destined 5.678 areas to contain urban refuges - became toxic.
After Seveso disaster (1976) , in the 80's, chemical, mechanical, siderurgical and petrol industries began their process of industrial dismantlement (Ambiente Italia 1991b, p. 30). Anyway there is not a law which controls the risks of contamination of areas located in the surroundings of dangerous dumps, and their being next to fluvial areas makes the situation much more difficult, due to the probability of other catastrophic events (dumps found in Casale Monferrato, 1988).
Only in 1980 a legislation about refuges debelling is promulgated. Nowadays, the industrial areas dismissing is active , in Italy, in the syderurgic, chemistry and synthetic fibres industries, and the micro electric one. Sometimes, this area is converted to new industrial aims or made residential, but some international experiences have demonstrated that such polluted areas cannot be used before a careful analysis and regenerating intervention. Dismissing processes in Italy involve siderurgic and metallurgic sectors). Even if we solve the problem of pollution at its roots, there is that of regenerating the places which has very high costs and risks.
The 11 areas at risk involve 718 Towns: 19% of Italian population, with non homogeneous distribution. Only in two Regions, Lombardia and Campania, there's a awareness of situation (54 - 55% of population). Anyway with the law 349/86 any financial aid is given according to every single and specific case of ecological alteration: it's important to promote more interagibility between environmental problem and territorial plans than in the past.
Valle Bormida and Acna of Cengio
In a law industrially developed area, a large factory polluted - with its litter - waters, atmosphere and ground . After the important decision of saving the area, two different positions came out:
It was Bormida valley, known to be one of the most polluted and contaminated areas in Italy. It was named the "poison valley", with its 20 million m3 of toxic refuges (Ambiente Italia,1991b, p. 16) and degrade. The surviving of water life was seriously threatened and there still remain several risk factors:
risk of environmental ecological alteration (river);
risk of water -bearing strata;
risk of hidrogeological disaster.
According an sociologic analysis, the dangers were felt by different moments throughout the century, but without a specific intervention on area. In 1987 (The Chernobyl disaster was happened) value of an environmental negotiation among Magistratura, Regions Local ENT, industrial and agricultural industries, universities and syndicates: a National case. Finally! The NIMBY "not in my back-yard" effect was won with several laws in the defence of safety, health and Environment.
A Regenerating Plan for the valley was defined.
A careful study showed - in 1991-1993- how both the industrial and the agricultural slopes of the valley presented several analogies as far as the demographic crisis and the lack of productivity are concerned. The presence of ACNA factory, with its polluting risk, is the responsible of this. This awareness in the people is an important fact. Yet, the local population see the effective damages and the actual risks as different matters, as if the latter were not a direct consequence of the former. Objective sources of knowledge are still lacking and there is an alarming sort of unconsciousness about the cole relationship between risks and social degradation.
The study shows that:
After this fact, official documents and decrees pointed out three questions:
In real, at that time environmental emergency favoured much more re-establishment of factory than reclamation of area. Today, a different awareness is developed among population.
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CENTRAL OFFICE per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali Italian gestisce un sistema informativo territoriale nazionale che contiene dati cartografici, grafici alfanumerici, tabellari ...
Mathis Wackernagel e W. Rees, Like reduce human impact on the heart . Ambiente Edition
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